About Me

I was born and raised in São Vicente-SP, the first city of Brazil

I am from Vila Margarida, a low income neighborhood two blocks away from – what was at the time – the 5th largest slum in South America, México 70.

I attended Brazilian public high school and did my undergrad at Unisantos, taking classes at night while working full time in the Port of Santos.

In 2011, I placed 24th out of 1100 in the national entrance  exam for masters in economics. I decided to join FGV for it’s rigorous study of economics.

In 2014, I graduated from FGV, having the highest GPA in the cohort, and started my PhD at Chicago the year after.

In 2020/2021 I went to the COVID job market. I had 57 job interviews and made 21 virtual fly-outs. I had the unique opportunity to meet interesting economists all around the world, show them my work, and understand a little how they think. In 2021 I joined the IIES as Assar Lindbeck Fellow. In 2022 I will join the Chicago FRB.

São Vicente is as proud of me as I am of being from there. They have reported on my career here, here, and here.


  author={Gustavo de Souza},
  title={{The Labor Market Consequences of Appropriate Technology}},
  institution={Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago},
  type={Working Paper Series},
  number={WP 2022-53},
  abstract={Developing countries rely on technology created by developed countries. This paper demonstrates that such reliance increases wage inequality but leads to greater production in developing countries. I study a Brazilian innovation program that taxed the leasing of international technology to subsidize national innovation. I show that the program led firms to replace technology licensed from developed countries with in-house innovations, which led to a decline in both employment and the share of high-skilled workers. Using a model of directed technological change and technology transfer, I find that increasing the share of firms that patent in Brazil by 1 p.p. decreases the skilled wage premium by 0.02% and production by 0.2%},
  keywords={appropriate technology; directed technological change; innovation},


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